Kristy Barrantes-Brais
Universidad Nacional, Costa Rica

 

Isabel Balaguer-Solá
Universitat de València, España

 

Resumen

El propósito de este estudio fue analizar el efecto de intervenciones de Psicología positiva y de ejercicio físico sobre indicadores de bienestar y malestar psicológico en estudiantes universitarios costarricenses. Se realizó una investigación cuasiexperimental, de diseño factorial (4 x 2) con mediciones pre y post, en el que 233 estudiantes universitarios (18.97 ± 2.18 años, 135 mujeres, 98 hombres) se vieron expuestos a una de cuatro diferentes condiciones: intervenciones de psicología positiva (PP), intervenciones de ejercicio físico (E), intervenciones combinadas de PP y E y control (C). Se midieron indicadores de bienestar y malestar psicológico. Las intervenciones de Psicología positiva mejoraron el indicador de malestar psicológico “emociones negativas” (p = .022), pero no impactaron significativamente los indicadores de bienestar psicológico (p > .05). La combinación las intervenciones de PP y E generó los mismos efectos que cuando únicamente se utilizan las estrategias derivadas de la psicología positiva, esto es, se presentó una reducción significativa en el indicador “emociones negativas” (p = .028). Dicho efecto puede contribuir a la mejora de la vivencia de la vida universitaria y proteger a los estudiantes de los riesgos asociados con experiencias de malestar psicológico en diversas esferas de su vida. Las intervenciones de ejercicio por sí mismas no modificaron de manera significativa los indicadores de bienestar ni malestar psicológico (p > .05).

Palabras clave: estudiantes universitarios, bienestar del estudiante, afectividad, ambiente de la clase, docentes

 

Acceder

 

Referencias

 

Arias-de la Torre, J., Fernández-Villa, T., Molina, A.J., Amezcua-Prieto, C., Mateos, R., Cancela, J.M., …Martín, V. (2019). Psychological distress, family support and employment status in first-year university students in Spain. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(7), 1-11. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16071209

Atienza, F. L., Pons, D., Balaguer, I., & García-Merita, M. L. (2000). Propiedades psicométricas de la Escala de Satisfacción con la Vida en adolescentes. Psicothema, 12(2), 331-336.

Bahník, Š., Vranka, M., & Dlouhá, J. (2015). X good things in life: Processing fluency effects in the “Three good things in life” exercise. Journal of Research in Personality, 55, 91-97. doi:10.1016/j.jrp.2015.02.005

Barrantes-Brais, K., & Ureña-Bonilla, P. (2015). Bienestar psicológico y bienestar subjetivo en estudiantes universitarios costarricenses. Revista Intercontinental de Psicología y Educación, 17(1), 101-123

Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Brown, G. K. (1996). BDI-II. Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition. Manual. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.

Bolier, L., Haverman, M., Westerhof, G. J., Riper, H., Smit, F., & Bohlmeijer, E. (2013). Positive psychology interventions: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies. BMC Public Health, 13(119), 1-20.   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-119

Borg, G. (1998). Borg’s perceived exertion and pain scales. Champaign, IL, US: Human Kinetics.

Bruffaerts, R., Mortier, P., Kiekens, G., Auerbach, R.P., Cuijpers, P., Demyttenaere, K.,…Kessler, R.C. (2018). Mental health problems in college freshmen: Prevalence and academic functioning. Journal of Affective Disorders, 225, 97-103. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2017.07.044

Buela-Casal, G., Guillén-Riquelme, A., & Seisdedos Cubero, N. (2011). Cuestionario de Ansiedad Estado-Rasgo: Adaptación española (8a. ed.). Madrid, España: TEA Ediciones.

Butler, J., & Kern, M. L. (2015). The PERMA-Profiler: A brief multidimensional measure of flourishing. Recuperado de http://www.peggykern.org/questionnaires.html

Castillo, I., Tomás, I., & Balaguer, I. (2017). The Spanish-Version of the Subjective Vitality Scale: Psychometric Properties and Evidence of Validity. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 20(e26), 1–8. doi:10.1017/sjp.2017.22

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Conley, C. S., Durlak, J. A., & Dickson, D. A. (2013). An evaluative review of outcome research on universal mental health promotion and prevention programs for higher education students. Journal of American College Health, 61(5), 286-301. doi:10.1080/07448481.2013.802237

Davis, D. E., Choe, E., Meyers, J., Wade, N., Varjas, K., Gifford, A., . . . Worthington, E. L. (2016). Thankful for the little things: A meta-analysis of gratitude interventions. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 63(1), 20-31. doi:10.1037/cou0000107

De Castella, K., Goldin, P., Jazaieri, H., Ziv, M., Dweck, C. S., & Gross, J. J. (2013). Beliefs about emotion: Links to emotion regulation, well-being, and psychological distress. Basic & Applied Social Psychology, 35(6), 497-505. doi:10.1080/01973533.2013.840632

Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49(1), 71-75. doi:10.1207/s15327752jpa4901_13

Dooris, M., Wills, J., & Newton, J. (2014). Theorizing healthy settings: a critical discussion with reference to Healthy Universities. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 42(15 Suppl), 7-16. doi:10.1177/1403494814544495

Elbe, A. M., Strahler, K., Krustrup, P., Wikman, J., & Stelter, R. (2010). Experiencing flow in different types of physical activity intervention programs: three randomized studies. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 20(Suppl 1), 111-117. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0838.2010.01112.x

Emmons, R. A., & McCullough, M. E. (2003). Counting blessings versus burdens: An experimental investigation of gratitude and subjective well-being in daily life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(2), 377-389. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.84.2.377

Farris, R. P., Will, J. C., Khavjou, O., & Finkelstein, E. A. (2007). Beyond effectiveness: evaluating the public health impact of the WISEWOMAN program. American Journal of Public Health, 97(4), 641-647. doi:10.2105/ajph.2005.072264

Flay, B. R., Biglan, A., Boruch, R. F., Castro, F. G., Gottfredson, D., Kellam, S., . . . Ji, P. (2005). Standards of evidence: criteria for efficacy, effectiveness and dissemination. Prevention Science, 6(3), 151-175. doi:10.1007/s11121-005-5553-y

Gázquez Pertusa, M., García del Castillo, J. A., & Ruiz Alfaro, I. (2011). Importancia de la fidelidad en la implementación de programas escolares para prevenir el consumo de drogas. Health & Addictions, 11(1), 51-69.

Ghorbani, F., Heidarimoghadam, R., Karami, M., Fathi, K., Minasian, V., & Bahram, M. E. (2014). The effect of six-week aerobic training program on cardiovascular fitness, body composition and mental health among female students. Journal of Research in Health Science, 14(4), 264-267.

Harbaugh, C. N., & Vasey, M. W. (2014). When do people benefit from gratitude practice? Journal of Positive Psychology, 9(6), 535-546. doi:10.1080/17439760.2014.927905

Hone, L. C., Jarden, A., & Schofield, G. M. (2015). An evaluation of positive psychology intervention effectiveness trials using the re-aim framework: A practice-friendly review. Journal of Positive Psychology, 10(4), 303-322. doi:10.1080/17439760.2014.965267

Hopkins, M. E., Davis, F. C., Vantieghem, M. R., Whalen, P. J., & Bucci, D. J. (2012). Differential effects of acute and regular physical exercise on cognition and affect. Neuroscience, 215, 59-68. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2012.04.056

Hurley, D., & Kwon, P. (2012). Results of a study to increase savoring the moment: Differential impact on positive and negative outcomes. Journal of Happiness Studies, 13(4), 579-588. doi:10.1007/s10902-011-9280-8

Huta, V., & Waterman, A. (2014). Eudaimonia and its distinction from hedonia: Developing a classification and terminology for understanding conceptual and operational definitions. Journal of Happiness Studies, 15(6), 1425-1456. doi:10.1007/s10902-013-9485-0

Hyde, A. L., Conroy, D. E., Pincus, A. L., & Ram, N. (2011). Unpacking the feel-good effect of free-time physical activity: between- and within-person associations with pleasant-activated feeling states. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 33(6), 884-902.

International Physical Activity Questionnaire. (2005). Guidelines for data processing and analysis of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ)-Short and Long Forms. Recuperado de https://sites.google.com/site/theipaq/scoring-protocol

Kashdan, T. B., Biswas-Diener, R., & King, L. A. (2008). Reconsidering happiness: the costs of distinguishing between hedonics and eudaimonia. Journal of Positive Psychology, 3(4), 219-233. doi:10.1080/17439760802303044

Kawabata, M., & Mallett, C. J. (2011). Flow experience in physical activity: Examination of the internal structure of flow from a process-related perspective. Motivation and Emotion, 35(4), 393-402. doi:10.1007/s11031-011-9221-1

Kern, M. L., Waters, L. E., Adler, A., & White, M. A. (2015). A multidimensional approach to measuring well-being in students: Application of the PERMA framework. Journal of Positive Psychology, 10(3), 262-271. doi:10.1080/17439760.2014.936962

King, L. A. (2001). The health benefits of writing about life goals. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 27(7), 798. doi:10.1177/0146167201277003

Kleinman, K. E., Asselin, C., & Henriques, G. (2014). Positive consequences: The impact of an undergraduate course on positive psychology. Psychology, 5, 2033-2045. doi:10.4236/psych.2014.518206

Kubitz, K. A., & Landers, D. M. (1993). The effects of aerobic training on cardiovascular responses to mental stress: an examination of underlying mechanisms. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 15(3), 326-337.

Lawlor, D. A., & Hopker, S. W. (2001). The effectiveness of exercise as an intervention in the management of depression: systematic review and meta-regression analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMJ, 322, 763-767.

Layous, K., Nelson, S. K., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2013). What is the optimal way to deliver a positive activity intervention? The case of writing about one’s best possible selves. Journal of Happiness Studies, 14(2), 635-654. doi:10.1007/s10902-012-9346-2

Liau, A. K., Neihart, M. F., Teo, C. T., & Lo, C. H. M. (2016). Effects of the best possible self activity on subjective well-being and depressive symptoms. The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 25(3), 473–481. doi:10.1007/s40299-015-0272-z

Lyubomirsky, S., Dickerhoof, R., Boehm, J. K., & Sheldon, K. M. (2011). Becoming happier takes both a will and a proper way: An experimental longitudinal intervention to boost well-being. Emotion, 11(2), 391-402. doi:10.1037/a0022575

Marks, L. I., & Wade, J. C. (2015). Positive psychology on campus: Creating the conditions for well-being and success. About Campus, 19(6), 9-15. doi:10.1002/abc.21174

Martínez-Martí, M. L., Avia, M. D., & Hernández-Lloreda, M. J. (2010). The effects of counting blessings on subjective well-being: a gratitude intervention in a Spanish sample. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 13(2), 886-896.

McMakin, D. L., Siegle, G. J., & Shirk, S. R. (2011). Positive affect stimulation and sustainment (PASS) module for depressed mood: A preliminary investigation of treatment-related effects. Cognit Ther Res, 35(3), 217-226. doi:10.1007/s10608-010-9311-5

Meng, X., & D’Arcy, C. (2016). Coping strategies and distress reduction in psychological well-being? A structural equation modelling analysis using a national population sample. Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences, 25(4), 370-383. doi:10.1017/s2045796015000505

Miller, E. J., & Chung, H. (2009). A literature review of studies of depression and treatment outcomes among U.S. College students since 1990. Psychiatric Services, 60(9), 1257-1260. doi:10.1176/appi.ps.60.9.1257

Miller, R. W., & Duncan, E. (2015). A pilot randomised controlled trial comparing two positive psychology interventions for their capacity to increase subjective wellbeing. Counselling Psychology Review, 30(3), 36-46.

Molina-García, J., Castillo, I., & Queralt, A. (2011). Leisure-time physical activity and psychological well-being in university students. Psychological Reports, 109(2), 453-460. doi:10.2466/06.10.13.PR0.109.5.453-460

Ng, W. (2015). Boosting well-being with positive psychology interventions: Moderating role of personality and other factors. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 45(2), 79-87. doi:10.1007/s10879-014-9291-y

Oades, L. G., Robinson, P., Green, S., & Spence, G. B. (2011). Towards a positive university. Journal of Positive Psychology, 6(6), 432-439. doi:10.1080/17439760.2011.634828

O’Donnell, P. J. (2013). Psychological effects of a strength-based intervention among inpatients in rehabilitation for pain and disability (Doctoral dissertation). Recuperada de https://www.academia.edu/4662584/Psychological_Effects_of_a_Strength-Based_Intervention_Among_Inpatients_in_Rehabilitation_for_Pain_and_Disability

O’Donoghue, P. (2012). Statistics for sport and exercise studies. An introduction. New York: Routledge.

Odou, N., & Vella-Brodrick, D. (2013). The efficacy of positive psychology interventions to increase well-being and the role of mental imagery ability. Social Indicators Research, 110(1), 111-129. doi:10.1007/s11205-011-9919-1

Ouweneel, E., Le Blanc, P. M., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2014). On being grateful and kind: Results of two randomized controlled trials on study-related emotions and academic engagement. Journal of Psychology, 148(1), 37-60.

Park, N., & Peterson, C. (2009). Character strengths: Research and practice. Journal of College & Character, 10(4), 1-10. doi:10.2202/1940-1639.1042

Park, N., Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2004). Strengths of character and well-being. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 23(5), 603-619. doi:10.1521/jscp.23.5.603.50748

Park, N., & Peterson, C. (2009). Achieving and sustaining a good life. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 4(4), 422-428. doi:10.1111/j.1745-6924.2009.01149.x

Pedrelli P., Nyer M., Yeung A., Zulauf C., & Wilens T. (2015). College students: Mental health problems and treatment considerations. Academic Psychiatry, 39(5), 503-11. doi: 10.1007/s40596-014-0205-9

Peters, M. L., Flink, I. K., Boersma, K., & Linton, S. J. (2010). Manipulating optimism: Can imagining a best possible self be used to increase positive future expectancies? Journal of Positive Psychology, 5(3), 204-211. doi:10.1080/17439761003790963

Peterson, C. (2006). A primer in positive psychology. New York: Oxford University Press.

Quinlan, D., Swain, N., & Vella-Brodrick, D. (2012). Character strengths interventions: Building on what we know for improved outcomes. Journal of Happiness Studies, 13(6), 1145-1163. doi:10.1007/s10902-011-9311-5

Quoidbach, J., Gross, J. J., & Mikolajczak, M. (2015). Positive interventions: An emotion regulation perspective. Psychological Bulletin, 141(3), 655-693. doi:10.1037/a0038648

Reed, J., & Buck, S. (2009). The effect of regular aerobic exercise on positive-activated affect: A meta-analysis. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 10(6), 581-594. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2009.05.009

Renner, F., Schwarz, P., Peters, M. L., & Huibers, M. J. (2014). Effects of a best-possible-self mental imagery exercise on mood and dysfunctional attitudes. Psychiatry Research, 215(1), 105-110. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2013.10.033

Rethorst, C. D., Wipfli, B. M., & Landers, D. M. (2009). The antidepressive effects of exercise: a meta-analysis of randomized trials. Sports Medicine, 39(6), 491-511. doi:10.2165/00007256-200939060-00004

Reyes-Rodriguez, M. L., Rivera-Medina, C. L., Camara-Fuentes, L., Suarez-Torres, A., & Bernal, G. (2013). Depression symptoms and stressful life events among college students in Puerto Rico. Journal of Affective Disorders, 145(3), 324-330. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2012.08.010

Ridner, S. H. (2004). Psychological distress: concept analysis. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 45(5), 536-545. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2648.2003.02938.x

Robles, R., & Páez, F. (2003). Estudio sobre la traducción al español y las propiedades psicométricas de las Escalas de Afecto Positivo y Negativo (PANAS). Salud Mental, 26(1), 69.

Russell, W., & Newton, M. (2008). Short-term psychological effects of interactive video game technology exercise on mood and attention. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 11(2), 294-308.

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2001). On happiness and human potentials: a review of research on hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 141-166. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.14

Ryan, R. M., & Frederick, C. (1997). On energy, personality, and health: subjective vitality as a dynamic reflection of well-being. Journal of Personality, 65(3), 529-565.

Ryff, C. D. (1995). Psychological well-being in adult life. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 4(4), 99-104. doi:10.1111/1467-8721.ep10772395

Ryff, C. D., & Keyes, C. L. M. (1995). The structure of psychological well-being revisited. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69(4), 719-727. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.69.4.719

Sanz, J., Navarro, M. E., & Vázquez, C. (2003). Adaptación española del inventario para la depresión de Beck-II (BDI-II).1. Propiedades psicométricas en estudiantes universitarios. Análisis y Modificación de conducta, 29, 239-288.

Schueller, S. M. (2010). Preferences for positive psychology exercises. Journal of Positive Psychology, 5(3), 192-203. doi:10.1080/17439761003790948

Scott, L. A., Joyner, A. B., Czech, D. R., Munkasy, B. A., & Todd, S. (2009). Effects of exercise and a brief education intervention on social physique anxiety in college students. International Journal of Fitness, 5(1), 9-17.

Seligman, M.  E.  P. (2011). Flourish: A visionary new understanding of happiness and wellbeing. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Seligman, M. E. P., Ernst, R. M., Gillham, J., Reivich, K., & Linkins, M. (2009). Positive education: positive psychology and classroom interventions. Oxford Review of Education, 35(3), 293-311. doi:10.1080/03054980902934563

Seligman, M. E. P., Rashid, T., & Parks, A. C. (2006). Positive psychotherapy. American Psychologist, 61(8), 774-788.

Seligman, M. E. P., Steen, T. A., Park, N., & Peterson, C. (2005). Positive psychology progress: Empirical validation of interventions. American Psychologist, 60(5), 410-421. doi:10.1037/0003-066x.60.5.410

Sergeant, S., & Mongrain, M. (2015). Distressed users report a better response to online positive psychology interventions than nondistressed users. Canadian Psychology, 56(3), 322-331. doi:10.1037/cap0000034

Sheldon, K. M., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2006). How to increase and sustain positive emotion: The effects of expressing gratitude and visualizing best possible selves. Journal of Positive Psychology, 1(2), 73-82. doi:10.1080/17439760500510676

Sin, N. L., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2009). Enhancing well-being and alleviating depressive symptoms with positive psychology interventions: a practice-friendly meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 65(5), 467-487. doi:10.1002/jclp.20593

Smith, J. C. (2013). Effects of emotional exposure on state anxiety after acute exercise. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 45(2), 372-378. doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e31826d5ce5

Spielberger, C. D., Gorsuch, R. L., & Lushene, R. (1997). Manual del Cuestionario de Ansiedad Estado/Rasgo (STAI) (4 ed.). Madrid, España: TEA Ediciones.

Storrie, K., Ahern, K., & Tuckett, A. (2010). A systematic review: Students with mental health problems—a growing problem. International Journal of Nursing Practice, 16(1), 1-6. doi:10.1111/j.1440-172X.2009.01813.x

Tarragona, M., Kern, M. L., & Butler, J. (2014). PERMA Profiler: Versión Española. Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania.

Vázquez, C. (2009). La ciencia del bienestar psicológico. En C. Vázquez & G. Hervás (Eds.), La ciencia del bienestar. Fundamentos de una Psicología Positiva (pp. 13-46). Madrid: Alianza Editorial.

Walter, K., von Haaren, B., Loffler, S., Hartel, S., Jansen, C. P., Werner, C., . . . Hey, S. (2013). Acute and medium term effects of a 10-week running intervention on mood state in apprentices. Frontiers in Psychology, 4, 411. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00411

Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: the PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(6), 1063-1070.

Wegner, M., Helmich, I., Machado, S., Nardi, A. E., Arias-Carrion, O., & Budde, H. (2014). Effects of exercise on anxiety and depression disorders: review of meta- analyses and neurobiological mechanisms. CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets, 13(6), 1002-1014.

Winefield, H. R., Gill, T. K., Taylor, A. W., & Pilkington, R. M. (2012). Psychological well-being and psychological distress: is it necessary to measure both? Psychology of Well-Being: Theory, Research and Practice, 2(1), 1-14. doi:10.1186/2211-1522-2-3

Wood, A. M., Froh, J. J., & Geraghty, A. W. A. (2010). Gratitude and well-being: A review and theoretical integration. Clin Psychol Rev, 30(7), 890-905. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2010.03.005